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A street is a public thoroughfare usually paved in a built environment. It is a public parcel of land adjoining buildings in an urban context, on which people may freely assemble, interact, and move about. A street can be as simple as a level patch of dirt , but is more often paved with a hard, durable surface such as concrete , cobblestone or brick. Portions may also be smoothed with asphalt , embedded with rails , or otherwise prepared to accommodate non- pedestrian traffic.
Originally the word "street" simply meant a paved road Latin: The word "street" is still sometimes used colloquially as a synonym for " road ", for example in connection with the ancient Watling Street , but city residents and urban planners draw a crucial modern distinction: Conversely, highways and motorways are types of roads, but few would refer to them as streets. The word street has its origins in the Latin strata meaning "paved road" - abbreviation from via strata  ; it is thus related to stratum and stratification.
Ancient Greek stratos means army: Greeks originally built roads to move their armies. Later it acquired a dialectical meaning of "straggling village", which were often laid out on the verges of Roman roads and these settlements often became named Stretton. In the Middle Ages , a road was a way people travelled, with street applied specifically to paved ways.
The street is a public easement , one of the few shared between all sorts of people. As a component of the built environment as ancient as human habitation, the street sustains a range of activities vital to civilization. Its roles are as numerous and diverse as its ever-changing cast of characters. Streets can be loosely categorized as main streets and side streets. Main streets are usually broad with a relatively high level of activity.
Commerce and public interaction are more visible on main streets, and vehicles may use them for longer-distance travel. Side streets are quieter, often residential in use and character, and may be used for vehicular parking. The unrestricted movement of people and goods within a city is essential to its commerce and vitality, and streets provide the physical space for this activity.
In the interest of order and efficiency, an effort may be made to segregate different types of traffic. This is usually done by carving a road through the middle for motorists, reserving pavements on either side for pedestrians; other arrangements allow for streetcars , trolleys , and even wastewater and rainfall runoff ditches common in Japan and India. In the midth century, as the automobile threatened to overwhelm city streets with pollution and ghastly accidents, many urban theorists came to see this segregation as not only helpful but necessary in order to maintain mobility.
Le Corbusier , for one, perceived an ever-stricter segregation of traffic as an essential affirmation of social order—a desirable, and ultimately inevitable, expression of modernity.
To this end, proposals were advanced to build "vertical streets" where road vehicles, pedestrians, and trains would each occupy their own levels. Such an arrangement, it was said, would allow for even denser development in the future.
Transportation is often misunderstood to be the defining characteristic, or even the sole purpose, of a street.
This has not been the case since the word "street" came to be limited to urban situations, and even in the automobile age, is still demonstrably false. A street may be temporarily blocked to all through traffic in order to secure the space for other uses, such as a street fair , a flea market , children at play, filming a movie, or construction work.
Many streets are bracketed by bollards or Jersey barriers so as to keep out vehicles. A feature universal to all streets is a human-scale design that gives its users the space and security to feel engaged in their surroundings, whatever through traffic may pass. Despite this, the operator of a motor vehicle may incompletely regard a street as merely a thoroughfare for vehicular travel or parking. As far as concerns the driver, a street can be one-way or two-way: Most two-way streets are wide enough for at least two lanes of traffic.
Which lane is for which direction of traffic depends on what country the street is located in. On broader two-way streets, there is often a centre line marked down the middle of the street separating those lanes on which vehicular traffic goes in one direction from other lanes in which traffic goes in the opposite direction.
Occasionally, there may be a median strip separating lanes of opposing traffic. If there is more than one lane going in one direction on a main street, these lanes may be separated by intermittent lane lines , marked on the street pavement. Side streets often do not have centre lines or lane lines.
Most minor side streets allowing free parallel parking do not have pavement markings designating the parking lane. Main streets more often have parking lanes marked.
Some streets are too busy or narrow for parking on the side. Sometimes parking on the sides of streets is allowed only at certain times. Curbside signs often state regulations about parking. Some streets, particularly in business areas, may have parking meters into which coins must be paid to allow parking in the adjacent space for a limited time. Other parking meters work on a credit card and ticket basis or pay and display.
Parking lane markings on the pavement may designate the meter corresponding to a parking space. Some wide streets with light traffic allow angle parking or herringbone parking. Sidewalks US usage or pavements UK usage are often located alongside on one or usually both sides of the street within the public land strips beyond the curbs.
Sidewalks serve a traffic purpose, by making walking easier and more attractive, but they also serve a social function, allowing neighbors to meet and interact on their walks.
They also can foster economic activity, such as window shopping and sidewalk cafes. Some studies have found that shops on streets with sidewalks get more customers than similar shops without sidewalks. An important element of sidewalk design is accessibility for persons with disabilities. Features that make sidewalks more accessible include curb ramps , tactile paving and accessible traffic signals. The Americans with Disabilities Act requires accessibility improvement on new and reconstructed streets within the US.
In most jurisdictions, bicycles are legally allowed to use streets, and required to follow the same traffic laws as motor vehicle traffic. Where the volume of bicycle traffic warrants and available right-of-way allows, provisions may be made to separate cyclists from motor vehicle traffic.
Wider lanes may be provided next to the curb, or shoulders may be provided. Bicycle lanes may be used on busy streets to provide some separation between bicycle traffic and motor vehicle traffic. The bicycle lane may be placed between the travel lanes and the parking lanes, between the parking lanes and the curb, or for increased safety for cyclists, between curb and sidewalk. These poorer designs can lead to Dooring incidents and are unsafe for cycling. A more sensible design is found in the Netherlands with a Protected Bicycle Path totally separate from the traffic which is safe for cycling.
Trams are generally considered to be environmentally friendly with tramlines running in streets with a combination of tram lanes or separate alignments are used, sometimes on a segregated right of way.
Often, a curb British English: Kerb is used to separate the vehicle traffic lanes from the adjacent pavement area and where people on bicycles are considered properly are used to separate cycling from traffic as well. Street signs , parking meters , bicycle stands , benches , traffic signals , and street lights are often found adjacent to streets. They may be behind the sidewalk, or between the sidewalk and the curb.
There may be a road verge a strip of grass or other vegetation between the carriageway North American English: Roadway and the pavement on either side of the street on which Grass or trees are often grown there for landscaping. These are often placed for beautification, but are increasingly being used to control stormwater.
Although primarily used for traffic, streets are important corridors for utilities such as electric power; communications such as telephone, cable television and fiber optic lines; storm and sanitary sewers ; and natural gas lines. Practically all public streets in Western countries and the majority elsewhere though not in Japan; see Japanese addressing system are given a street or road name , or at least a number, to identify them and any addresses located along the streets.
Alleys , in some places, do not have names. The length of a lot of land along a street is referred to as the frontage of the lot. A street may assume the role of a town square for its regulars. Jane Jacobs , an economist and prominent urbanist, wrote extensively on the ways that interaction among the people who live and work on a particular street—" eyes on the street "—can reduce crime, encourage the exchange of ideas, and generally make the world a better place.
Madison Avenue and Fleet Street are so strongly identified with their respective most famous types of commerce, that their names are sometimes applied to firms located elsewhere. Other streets mark divisions between neighborhoods of a city. Some streets are associated with the beautification of a town or city. Chambers of Commerce and the Garden Clubs of America. In , Gwin received a citation from the National Congress of the Daughters of the American Revolution in recognition of her work in the conservation of trees.
Streets also tend to aggregate establishments of similar nature and character. East 9th Street in Manhattan , for example, offers a cluster of Japanese restaurants, clothing stores, and cultural venues. Many cities have a Radio Row or Restaurant Row. This phenomenon is the subject of urban location theory in economics. A road , like a street, is often paved and used for travel. However, a street is characterized by the degree and quality of street life it facilitates, whereas a road serves primarily as a through passage for road vehicles or less frequently pedestrians.
In rural and suburban environments where street life is rare, the terms "street" and "road" are frequently considered interchangeable. Still, even here, what is called a "street" is usually a smaller thoroughfare, such as a road within a housing development feeding directly into individual driveways.
In the last half of the 20th century these streets often abandoned the tradition of a rigid, rectangular grid , and instead were designed to discourage through traffic. This and other traffic calming methods provided quiet for families and play space for children. Adolescent suburbanites find, in attenuated form, the amenities of street life in shopping malls where vehicles are forbidden. A town square or plaza is a little more like a street, but a town square is rarely paved with asphalt and may not make any concessions for through traffic at all.
A desolate road in rural Montana , on the other hand, may bear a sign proclaiming it "Davidson Street", but this does not make it a "street" except in the original sense of a paved road.
In the United Kingdom many towns will refer to their main thoroughfare as the High Street in the United States and Canada it would be called the Main Street —however, occasionally "Main Street" in a city or town is a street other than the de facto main thoroughfare , and many of the ways leading off it will be named "Road" despite the urban setting.
Some streets may even be called highways. For example, Hurontario Street in Mississauga , Ontario , Canada, is commonly referred to as " Highway 10 "—even though such a highway designation no longer officially exists through the city. This is probably because the street is a modern suburban arterial that was urbanized after decades of having the status and function of a true highway, so people continue to use the number from force of habit. In some other English-speaking countries, such as Australia and New Zealand, cities are often divided by a main "Road", with "Streets" leading from this "Road", or the cities are divided by thoroughfares known as "Streets" or "Roads" with no apparent differentiation between the two.